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Design of Concrete Waffle Slab

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This research presents the optimization techniques for reinforced concrete waffle slab design because the EC2 code cannot provide an efficient and optimum design.

Waffle slab is mostly used where there is necessity to avoid column interfering the spaces or for a slab with large span or as an aesthetic purpose. Design optimization has been carried out here with MATLAB, using genetic algorithm.

The objective function include the overall cost of reinforcement, concrete and formwork while the variables comprise of the depth of the rib including the topping thickness, rib width, and ribs spacing.

The optimization constraints are the minimum and maximum areas of steel, flexural moment capacity, shear capacity and the geometry. The optimized cost and slab dimensions are obtained through genetic algorithm in MATLAB.

The optimum steel ratio is 2.2% with minimum slab dimensions. The outcomes indicate that the design of reinforced concrete waffle slabs can be effectively carried out using the optimization process of genetic algorithm.

Design of Concrete Waffle Slab num1

Description of waffle slab

A waffle slab is flat on top, while joists create a grid like surface on the bottom. The grid is formed by the removal of molds after the concrete sets. This structure was designed to be more solid when used on longer spans and with heavier loads. This type of structure, because of its rigidity, is recommended for buildings that require minimal vibration, like laboratories and manufacturing facilities. It is also used in buildings that require big open spaces, like theatres or train stations. Waffle slabs are composed by intricate formwork, and may be more expensive than other types of slabs, but depending on the project and the quantity of concrete needed it may be cheaper to build.

There are two types of waffle slab system:
  1. One way waffle slab system
  2. Two way waffle slab system

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